Unsupported Browser

ESL Library may not function properly in Internet Explorer. We recommend using Google Chrome or Firefox instead.

Unsupported Browser

ESL Library may not function properly in older browsers. We recommend updating yours to the latest version for the best experience.

Teaching Articles: A, An, and The

February 11, 2016

Articles in English are tiny words that can cause big problems for learners. Many beginner students who don’t use articles in their native tongue can have trouble learning when to use a or the. Higher-lever students can also struggle with the many exceptions and quirks of article usage. Before getting into a beginner or intermediate lesson (see “Practice” below), try presenting the basic English articles a, an, and the in chart form to help learners compare and understand the differences.


Articles chart

Articles Chart – Grammar & Usage Resources


Tip #1

Use a/an/ø with general nouns.

What is a general (indefinite) noun? For example:

  • I’m hungry. I want a sandwich. Can you see a sandwich right now? No? That’s why it’s a sandwich. I don’t have a specific sandwich in mind. I can’t see it, and you can’t see it. We don’t know which sandwich I’m talking about. It could be any sandwich.

Tip #2

Use the with specific nouns.

What is a specific (definite) noun? For example:

  • [The teacher gives a blue pen to a student] Kim, can you pass me the blue pen? Can everyone see the blue pen? Yes? That’s why it’s the blue pen. I know which pen it is. I can see it, and you can see it. I’m talking about only this one specific pen, and we all know which pen I’m talking about.

Tip #3

Use an nefore words that begin with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u) and a before words that begin with a consonant.


Words that begin with a “u” or “h” take an if the noun begins with a vowel sound (e.g., an umbrella, an heir) and a if the noun begins with a consonant sound (e.g., a university, a house).

Tip #4

Use the when there is only one of something.

Examples include:

  • the sun, the moon, the earth
  • the library, the bank, the laundromat (in a town)
  • the door, the whiteboard, the teacher’s desk (in your classroom).

Tip #5

Use the when it’s the second mention of the noun.

Even though we still can’t see it, we know which one the speaker is talking about because it has been introduced. For example:

  • I saw a movie last night. The movie was so boring that I fell asleep.

Tip #6

Use the when the noun has an adjective clause or phrase that modifies it.

The extra information that describes the noun makes it clear which noun we’re referring to. For example:

  • The dog that follows me home every day is really friendly.


ESL Library has two great lessons on Articles. Our new Articles – Beginner lesson covers a, an, and the, and provides many mixed exercises for practice. Our reformatted Articles – Intermediate lesson goes into great detail about the many uses and exceptions of English articles.

Not an ESL Library member?

Get unlimited access to 1,000+ lessons and 3,000+ flashcards.

Sign Up

Comments (12)

Bruntha (Guest)

It's really helpful to me...thank u so much....

Reply to Comment

Tanya Trusler(Author)

Great to hear! Thanks for your comment, Bruntha.

Son Bach(Guest)

wow, I never thought that this would be so useful. I use it with a thought of it being corrected in a sentence

Reply to Comment

Tanya Trusler(Author)

I'm glad you found it helpful!

Dr. Katherine Barg(Guest)

Doesn't seem I should have to buy a subscription to teach articles. I need to see the teaching materials first.

Reply to Comment

Tanya Trusler(Author)

Hi Dr. Barg,

Thanks for your comment. All of our blog post articles (with teaching tips, grammar instruction, and occasional handouts or charts) are free and require no subscription. We have a paid subscription service to access our ready-made, printable lessons and flashcards in a different section, found here: https://esllibrary.com/courses

You can find viewable samples by clicking into any lesson section on that page or by going directly to our Samples page here: https://esllibrary.com/sample/lessons

Nourdine (Guest)

This is great! Thanks

Reply to Comment

Tanya Trusler(Author)

You're welcome, Nourdine! Thanks for commenting!

Clara Kisombo(Guest)

The page is so nice to English learner especially for beginners learners...stay blessed

Reply to Comment

Tanya Trusler(Author)

Thank you, Clara!

Jonathan (Guest)

Great tips in here thanks! I'll be trying a few out with my next class on articles :)

Reply to Comment

Tanya Trusler(Author)

Great! Let me know how it goes.

Leave a Comment

Log In to Comment Reply

Comment Reply as a Guest
  • **bold**_italics_> quote

    This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply.

    Thinking of joining ESL Library?

    Complete this form to create an account and stay up to date on all the happenings here at ESL Library.